Smallest (usually microscopic) structural unit of matter capable of performing the fundamental functions of life.
Specialized structures for carrying out one or more vital cellular functions.
Animal and plant cells have many organelles in common, but there are also differences.
Organelles Common to Both Animal and Plant Cells
Surrounds cytoplasm (substance in which organelles, other than the nucleus, function) and regulates movement of molecular material in and out of cell. Also called the plasma membrane in animals and the plasmalemma in plants.
Most prominent part of cell, housing genetic material in organized structures known as chromosomes. The nucleus is essential for reproduction from DNA and protein synthesis from RNA. The nucleolus is a spherical region in the nucleus where RNA is transcribed into proteins. The nuclear membrane separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum is associated with ribosomes for the purpose of protein production. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum regulates calcium and is not associated with ribosomes.
Powerhouses where energy is generated.
Packages protein and lipids (fats).
Contain waste matter. Store a lot of water in plant cells.
Organelles Found Mostly in Animal Cells
Contain centrioles, which aid in cell division.
Contain enzymes that break down waste matter.
Organelles Found Only in Plant Cells
Rigid structure outside cell membrane that protects plant cell.
A type of plastid. Use green-pigmented chlorophyll to harness energy from sunlight to produce glucose (used as plant food) in a process known as photosynthesis.
Non-pigmented organelles found in some plant cells for the purpose of making and storing starch.
|Comparison||Animal Cell||Plant Cell|
|Shape||Round, Changeable||Rectangular, Unchangeable|
|Vacuole||Many small.||One large.|
Practice – Questions
1. The cell is the smallest structural unit of matter capable of performing the fundamental functions of:
A. social studies
2. A specialized structure for carrying out one or more vital cellular functions is called an:
3. A plant cell doesn’t always include a:
A. cell membrane
D. Golgi body
4. A plant cell includes a:
A. cell wall
5. An animal cell includes a:
B. bevy of vacuoles
D. cell wall
Practice – Answers
1. D. life
2. C. organelle
3. B. lysosome
4. A. cell wall
5. B. bevy of vacuoles