Sentence Structure

Subject     Verb
Bob              ate.


Basics

A sentence is a group of words that expresses an independent thought.

A sentence can consist of several components, two of which are usually a subject and a verb.

A sentence might contain an object and a modifier.

A sentence can be structured in a simple, compound, or complex manner.


Components

A sentence usually includes a subject performing an action.
Subject = noun performing an action
Verb = action word
Bob ate.

A sentence might include an object receiving an action.
Subject = noun performing an action
Verb = action word
Object = noun receiving an action
Bob ate lettuce.

Sometimes a sentence features a verb expressing existence or “state of being.”
Subject = noun
Verb = expresses state of being
Bob is.

A sentence expressing state of being is usually accompanied by a modifier.
Subject = noun
Verb = expresses state of being
Modifier = additional information about state of being
Bob is cold.


Simple
A simple sentence, also known as an independent clause, is a complete thought that can stand alone.
Bob ate lettuce.


Complex
A complex sentence contains an independent clause, which can stand alone as a complete sentence, and at least one dependent clause, which cannot stand alone as a complete sentence.  
A prepositional phrase is commonly used as a dependent clause.

Dependent                        Independent
Because he was hungry,
Bob
 ate lettuce.


Compound
A compound sentence consists of two independent clauses, each of which can stand alone as a complete sentence, joined by a conjunction: and, but, or, so, yet, etc.
Bob ate lettuce, and Betty sipped tea.

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